It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment.
For ordering information, please click here. Caligula Empire of Augustus and Tiberius Gaius Caesar was born on the last day of August in 12 CE, and as the youngest son of the popular Germanicus he was affectionately called Caligula for the military boots he wore as a child among the soldiers on the Rhine.
After his father died, he was adopted by Emperor Tiberius. Although his two brothers and mother were killed, Caligula managed to survive by joining in the perversions of the Emperor at Capri for six years.
Tiberius predicted that Caligula would mean his own death and universal ruin, saying he was nursing a viper in Rome's bosom. According to Suetonius Caligula seduced Ennia Naevia, the wife of praetorian prefect Macro, who helped him stay alive and alter the will of Tiberius, supplanting Tiberius Gemellus, grandson of Tiberius.
When Caligula entered Rome, a mob made him absolute ruler. Caligula stopped treason trials, recalled political exiles, allowed suppressed works to be published, abolished the sales tax, doubled bounty rates Tiberius had promised praetorian cohorts, provided games and spectacles, and was greeted with enthusiasm after the reclusive years of his predecessor.
For several months Caligula gave his personal attention to governing before he suffered a serious illness. At first Romans were delighted with Caligula's recovery; but then his behavior became monstrous for its atrocities according to historians such as Suetonius. He was elected consul and chose his uncle Claudius as his companion consul.
Caligula transferred elections from the Senate to the people and moved the imperial mint to Rome. He had killed or drove to suicide many prominent Romans including Tiberius Gemellus and Macro.
As his profligate spending used up funds, he revived treason trials to take money from the wealthy and imposed new taxes. He immediately accepted the honors and titles Augustus had taken decades to reluctantly acquire. Caligula slept with all three of his sisters, treating Drusilla like a wife.
When she died in 38 CE, he had her declared a goddess; during mourning he made it a capital crime to laugh, dine, or bathe with relatives. With imperial power his irrational behavior had few boundaries, as his peculiar whims no matter how cruel were obeyed out of fear.
He often quoted Accius that he did not mind being hated as long as he was feared.
He doted on actors, gladiators, and wives he desired. He used senators' wives and boys in a palace brothel to raise money.
Many were killed for their money, and older citizens he called relatives in order to inherit their property.
His greed was such that he enjoyed wallowing in large piles of gold.
Caligula forced many men to compete as gladiators alone and in groups and in doing so was not bound by the usual laws. The appearance of democracy soon gave way to tyranny as he abolished the elections.GENERAL PREFACE.
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